Toxicology and applied pharmacology

2-Amino-5-chlorophenol toxicity in renal cortical slices from Fischer 344 rats: effect of antioxidants and sulfhydryl agents.

PMID 10558918


2-Amino-5-chlorophenol is nephrotoxic through an unidentified mechanism. This study examined the in vitro toxicity of 2-amino-5-chlorophenol in renal cortical slices from Fischer 344 rats and specifically assessed induction of lipid peroxidation and depletion of renal glutathione. Renal cortical slices exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mM 2-amino-5-chlorophenol exhibited a concentration- and time-dependent increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Pyruvate-directed gluconeogenesis was diminished in a concentration-dependent manner following a 90-min incubation with 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mM 2-amino-5-chlorophenol. Lipid peroxidation was induced within 60 min by 1 mM 2-amino-5-chlorophenol in renal slices relative to control tissue. Total glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased below control values within 30 min of exposure to 0.5 and 1 mM 2-amino-5-chlorophenol. These results indicated that GSH levels were decreased prior to the appearance of increased LDH leakage and diminished membrane integrity. 2-Amino-5-chlorophenol toxicity was increased in renal slices isolated from animals pretreated with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 890 mg/kg ip). Pretreatment of renal slices with the phenolic antioxidant N,N'-diphenyl-1, 4-phenylenediamine (DPPD, 50 microM) or the iron chelator deferoxamine did not reduce 2-amino-5-chlorophenol cytotoxicity. These results suggest that 2-amino-5-chlorophenol toxicity was not mediated through an iron-dependent mechanism. 2-Amino-5-chlorophenol cytotoxicity was reduced by a 15-min pre-incubation with 2 mM ascorbate or a 30-min preincubation with the thiol-containing agents GSH (1 mM) or dithiothreitol (1 mM, DTT). Pretreatment with GSH, DTT, or ascorbate reduced LDH leakage and lipid peroxide generation induced by 2-amino-5-chlorophenol. These results suggest that 2-amino-5-chlorophenol cytotoxicity involved free radical generation through an iron-independent mechanism. Toxicity was reduced by the presence of the antioxidant ascorbate or by addition of glutathione.

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2-Amino-5-chlorophenol, 97%