Journal of medicinal chemistry

Analogues of neuroactive polyamine wasp toxins that lack inner basic sites exhibit enhanced antagonism toward a muscle-type mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

PMID 10602707


Philanthotoxin-433 (PhTX-433), a natural polyamine wasp toxin, is a noncompetitive antagonist of certain ionotropic receptors. Six analogues of PhTX-343 (a synthetic analogue of the natural product), in which the secondary amino groups are systematically replaced by oxygen or methylene groups, have been synthesized by coupling of N-(1-oxobutyl)tyrosine with 1,12-dodecanediamine, 4,9-dioxa-1, 12-dodecanediamine, or appropriately protected di- and triamines, the latter being obtained by multistep syntheses. The resulting PhTX-343 analogues were purified and characterized, and their protolytic properties (stepwise macroscopic pK(a) values) were determined by (13)C NMR titrations. All analogues are fully protonated at physiological pH. The effects of these compounds on acetylcholine-induced currents in TE671 cells clamped at various holding potentials were determined. All of the analogues noncompetitively antagonized the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in a concentration-, time-, and voltage-dependent manner. The amplitudes of acetylcholine-induced currents were compared at their peaks and at the end of a 1 s application in the presence or absence of the analogues. Most of the analogues were equipotent with or more potent than PhTX-343. The dideaza analogue PhTX-12 [IC(50) of 0.3 microM (final current value)] was the most potent, representing the highest potency improvement (about 50-fold) yet achieved by modification of the parent compound (PhTX-343). Thus, the presence of multiple positive charges in the PhTX-343 molecule is not necessary for antagonism of nAChR. In contrast, the compounds were much less potent than PhTX-343 at locust muscle ionotropic glutamate receptors sensitive to quisqualate (qGluR). The results demonstrate that the selectivity for different types of ionotropic receptors can be achieved by manipulating the polyamine moiety of PhTX-343.

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Philanthotoxin 343 tris(trifluoroacetate) salt, solid
C23H41N5O3 · 3C2HF3O2