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The Journal of biological chemistry

Novel human secreted phospholipase A(2) with homology to the group III bee venom enzyme.


PMID 10713052

Abstract

Venom and mammalian secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) have been associated with numerous physiological, pathological, and toxic processes. So far, structurally related group I and II sPLA(2)s have been found in vertebrates such as mammals and snakes, whereas group III sPLA(2)s have mainly been found in venom from invertebrates such as bees and scorpions. Here we report the cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for a human group III (hGIII) sPLA(2). The full-length cDNA codes for a signal peptide of 19 residues followed by a protein of 490 amino acids made up of a central sPLA(2) domain (141 residues) flanked by large N- and C-terminal regions (130 and 219 residues, respectively). The sPLA(2) domain is 31% identical to bee venom sPLA(2) and displays all of the features of group III sPLA(2)s including 10 cysteines. The hGIII sPLA(2) gene consists of at least 7 exons and maps to chromosome 22q. By Northern blot analysis, a 4.4-kilobase hGIII transcript was found in kidney, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. Transfection of hGIII sPLA(2) cDNA in COS cells led to accumulation of sPLA(2) activity in the culture medium, indicating that the cDNA codes for a secreted enzyme. Using small unilamellar vesicles as substrate, hGIII sPLA(2) was found to be a Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme showing an 11-fold preference for phosphatidylglycerol over phosphatidylcholine and optimal activity at pH 8.