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Chemical research in toxicology

Mutagenic activity of surface soil and quantification of 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-dinitropyrene isomers in soil in Japan.


PMID 10775328

Abstract

To clarify the mutagenic potential of nonagricultural surface soil in Japan, 110 soil samples were collected from five geographically different areas between November 1996 and March 1997, and organic extracts of the soil samples were examined by the Ames/Salmonella assay. Most of the soil extracts showed mutagenicity toward both strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence and/or absence of a mammalian metabolic activation system (S9 mix), suggesting that surface soil is largely contaminated with environmental mutagens. Soil samples collected at Hekinan, Kobe, and Osaka were highly mutagenic toward both strains, and their potencies toward TA98 without S9 mix were extremely high, inducing more than 12 000 revertants per gram of soil. On the other hand, soil samples from Muroran showed strong mutagenicity toward TA100 with S9 mix. Furthermore, 1, 3-dinitropyrene (DNP), 1,6-DNP, and 1,8-DNP in soil samples collected at 10 sampling sites in three metropolitan areas were quantified by fluorometric detection of the corresponding diaminopyrene isomers using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three DNP isomers were detected in all soil samples, and the amounts of 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-DNP isomers in the soil samples were 12-3270, 14-5587, and 13-6809 pg/g, respectively. The gross amount of three DNP isomers in surface soil collected at Hekinan was more than 10 ng per gram of soil. The highest contribution ratios of DNP isomers to the mutagenicity of soil extracts were observed for the samples collected at Osaka, and the total of the contribution ratios of three DNP isomers was about 50%. These results suggest that surface soil is largely contaminated with mutagenic compounds and that DNP isomers are one class of major mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds contaminating surface soil.

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