Cancer letters

Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene- and 1,6-dinitropyrene-DNA adduct formation in human mammary epithelial cells bydibenzoylmethane and sulforaphane.

PMID 10814878


Numerous phytochemicals have been examined for their capacity to act as cancer chemopreventive agents. Dibenzoylmethane, a minor constituent of licorice and a compound structurally-related to curcumin, recently was identified as an effective inhibitor of chemically-induced rat mammary DNA-adduct formation and tumorigenesis (Carcinogenesis 19(1998)1039-1043). The present studies were conducted to examine the capacity of dibenzoylmethane to inhibit the formation of DNA adducts following exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and 1,6-dinitropyrene (1,6-DNP), and to stimulate the expression of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H-quinone reductase (QR) proteins in the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10F. In addition, the efficacy of dibenzoylmethane as an enzyme inducer and adduct inhibitor was compared with that of sulforaphane, a potent inducer of phase II detoxification enzymes and inhibitor of chemically-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis. Dibenzoylmethane at concentrations from 0.1 M to 2.0 microM inhibited BP-DNA adduct formation by 63 to 81%. Likewise, sulforaphane inhibited BP-DNA adduct formation by 68 to 80% over the same concentration range. DNA adduct formation following exposure to 1,6-DNP was significantly inhibited by 46 to 61% due to dibenzoylmethane treatment (0.1 to 2.0 microM) and 30 to 56% due to sulforaphane treatment at the same concentrations. The expression of QR and GSTP1-1 proteins were increased by 3 to 4-fold and 3 to 5-fold, respectively, for MCF-10F cells treated with sulforaphane (0.5-2.0 microM). Dibenzoylmethane treatment at the same concentrations did not induce GSTP1-1 expression and significantly stimulated QR expression only at the 2.0 microM concentration. These data indicate that human mammary epithelial MCF-10F cells can convert BP and 1,6-DNP to DNA-binding forms, and that DNA adduct formation can be inhibited by the phytochemicals dibenzoylmethane and sulforaphane. The inhibition of BP-DNA and 1, 6-DNP adduct formation by sulforaphane was associated with increases in QR and GST protein expression. The mechanisms underlying the capacity of dibenzoylmethane to inhibit BP-DNA and 1,6-DNP-DNA adduct formation could not be explained by changes in QR or GST expression and remain to be determined. Together these data suggest that dibenzoylmethane and sulforaphane warrant continued evaluation as breast cancer chemopreventive agents.