Biochimica et biophysica acta

Characterization and partial purification of liver glucose transporter GLUT2.

PMID 10825458


GLUT2, the major facilitative glucose transporter isoform expressed in hepatocytes, pancreatic beta-cells, and absorptive epithelial cells, is unique not only with its low affinity and broad substrate specificity as a glucose transporter, but also with its implied function as a glucose-sensor. As a first essential step toward structural and biochemical elucidation of these unique, GLUT2 functions, we describe here the differential solubilization and DEAE-column chromatography of rat hepatocyte GLUT2 protein and its reconstitution into liposomes. The reconstituted GLUT2 bound cytochalasin B in a saturable manner with an apparent dissociation constant (K(d)) of 2.3 x 10(-6) M and a total binding capacity (B(T)) of 8.1 nmol per mg protein. The binding was completely abolished by 2% mercury chloride, but not affected by cytochalasin E. Significantly, the binding was also not affected by 500 mM D-glucose or 3-O-methyl D-glucose (3OMG). The purified GLUT2 catalyzed mercury chloride-sensitive 3OMG uptake, and cytochalasin B inhibited this 3OMG uptake. The inhibition was dose-dependent with respect to cytochalasin B, but was independent of 3OMG concentrations. These findings demonstrate that our solubilized GLUT2 reconstituted in liposomes is at least 60% pure and functional, and that GLUT2 is indeed unique in that its cytochalasin B binding is not affected by its substrate (D-glucose) binding. Our partially purified GLUT2 reconstituted in vesicles will be useful in biochemical and structural elucidation of GLUT2 as a glucose transporter and as a possible glucose sensor.