Archives of toxicology

Neurotoxic effect of L-2-chloropropionic acid on primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells.

PMID 10877001


L-2-Chloropropionic acid (L-CPA), when administered orally to rats, produces selective necrosis to the granule cell layer of the rat cerebellum which is delayed in onset, not appearing until 36-48 h after exposure. The present study was conducted to characterise the toxic effect of L-CPA in primary cell cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells in vitro. Exposure to L-CPA produced a time and concentration dependent loss in cerebellar granule cell viability. Mean 50% effective concentration (EC50) values for L-CPA toxicity were 18.3 +/- 0.3, 7.4 +/- 0.1, and 3.5 +/- 0.1 mM for 24, 48 and 72 h exposure respectively. Exposure for 24 h followed by a return to L-CPA free medium for 24 h was more toxic than exposure for 24 h alone. Cells maintained in culture for a longer duration were more susceptible to L-CPA-induced toxicity. The toxic effects of L-CPA could be partially or fully prevented by concomitant exposure of the cells to putative neuroprotective compounds. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801 (3 microM), afforded partial protection against L-CPA induced toxicity, whilst other glutamate receptor antagonists including, D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (D-AP5; 300 microM), D(-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (D-CPP; 300 microM), 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid (10 microM) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 1 microM) were ineffective. The antioxidant, vitamin E (10 microM), afforded significant but incomplete protection from L-CPA toxicity. However when both MK-801 (3 microM) and vitamin E (10 microM) were present during L-CPA exposure, a greater degree of protection was observed than with either compound alone, although the combination failed to provide complete protection. Cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial transition pore, also provided partial protection. By contrast, the free radical trapping agent, N-tert-butyl-alpha-(2-sulfophenyl)-nitrone (S-PBN) provided concentration (1-10 mM) dependent protection against the L-CPA-induced toxicity, which was complete at 10 mM. Our findings suggest that free radical production may be involved in the mechanism of L-CPA-induced toxicity.

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(S)-(−)-2-Chloropropionic acid, 99%
2-Chloropropionic acid, 92%