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Electrophoresis

Dual-opposite injection electrokinetic chromatography for the unbiased, simultaneous separation of cationic and anionic compounds.


PMID 10879959

Abstract

The concept of dual opposite injection in capillary electrophoresis (DOI-CE) for the simultaneous separation, under conditions of suppressed electroosmotic flow, of anionic and cationic compounds with no bias in resolution and analysis time, is extended to a higher pH range in a zone electrophoresis mode (DOI-CZE). A new DOI-CE separation mode based on electrokinetic chromatography is also introduced (DOI-EKC). Whereas conventional CZE and DOI-CZE are limited to the separation of charged compounds with different electrophoretic mobilities, DOI-EKC is shown to be capable of separating compounds with the same or similar electrophoretic mobilities. In contrast to conventional EKC with charged pseudostationary phases that often interact too strongly with analytes of opposite charge, the neutral pseudostationary phases appropriate for DOI-EKC are simultaneously compatible with anionic and cationic compounds. This work describes two buffer additives that dynamically suppress electroosmotic flow (EOF) at a higher pH (6.5) than in a previous study (4.4), thus allowing DOI-CZE of several pharmaceutical bases and weakly acidic positional isomers. Several DOI-EKC systems based on nonionic (10 lauryl ether, Brij 35) or zwitterionic (SB-12, CAS U) micelles, or nonionic vesicles (Brij 30) are examined using a six-component test mixture that is difficult to separate by CZE or DOI-CZE. The effect of electromigration dispersion on peak shape and efficiency, and the effect of surfactant concentration on retention, selectivity, and efficiency are described.

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