Toxicology and applied pharmacology

The effects of aliphatic (n-nonane), naphtenic (1,2, 4-trimethylcyclohexane), and aromatic (1,2,4-trimethylbenzene) hydrocarbons on respiratory burst in human neutrophil granulocytes.

PMID 10986013


This study investigates the effects of aliphatic (n-heptane, n-nonane), naphtenic (methylcyclohexane, 1,2,4-trimethylcyclohexane (TMCH)), and aromatic (methylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (TMB)) hydrocarbons on respiratory burst in human granulocytes. The free radical formation was measured as 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate-amplified (DCF) fluorescence, by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and by hydroxylation of 4-hydroxybenzoate. The chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe (fMLP) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a diacylglycerol analogue, were included as positive controls. DCF fluorescence was elevated in a concentration-dependent manner by C9 hydrocarbons. The C7 hydrocarbons did not stimulate respiratory burst in the concentration range examined. The naphtenic hydrocarbon TMCH showed the strongest effect on respiratory burst and was therefore selected for mechanistic studies of this free radical formation. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), fluorescence in response to TMCH and fMLP was reduced by 77 and 90%, respectively. Preincubation of the granulocytes with the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide reduced the DCF fluorescence stimulated with TMCH, fMLP, and PMA by 82, 56, and 90%, respectively. The phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 lowered the TMCH- and fMLP-activated DCF fluorescence by 87 and 76%. In addition, the TMCH- and fMLP-induced DCF fluorescence, after the preincubation with the phospholipase D modulator n-butanol, was lowered by 83 and 52%, respectively. The importance of protein kinase C, phospholipase C, and phospholipase D for elevation of respiratory burst was also demonstrated by the EPR experiments using the spin trap 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO). Preincubation with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium and diethyldithiocarbamate, which inhibits superoxide dismutase, led to an almost complete reduction of DCF fluorescence in response to TMCH, fMLP, and PMA. Preincubation with diethyldithiocarbamate led to the elevation of superoxide adducts of DEPMPO. The hydrocarbons stimulated formation of mainly the superoxide (O(*-)(2)) adduct of DEPMPO (DEPMPO-OOH) but also small amounts of the hydroxyl adduct ((*)OH) (DEPMPO-OH). Using 4-hydroxybenzoate as a hydroxyl radical trap confirmed formation of (*)OH after stimulation with the hydrocarbons. In conclusion, our findings indicate that TMCH-activated respiratory burst is dependent on the Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase C, phospholipase D, and protein kinase C prior to activation of the NADPH oxidase.