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Biophysical chemistry

Extra-helical guanine interactions in DNA.


PMID 11026683

Abstract

We review the extra-helical guanine interactions present in many oligonucleotide crystals. Very often terminal guanines interact with other guanines in the minor groove of neighboring oligonucleotides through N2 x N3 hydrogen bonds. In other cases the interaction occurs with the help of Ni2+ ions. Guanine/netropsin stacking in the minor groove has also been found. From these studies we conclude that guanine may have multiple extra-helical interactions. In particular it may be considered a very effective minor groove binder, which could be used in the design of sequence selective binding drugs. Interactions through the major groove are seldom encountered, but might be present when DNA is stretched. Such interactions are also analyzed, since they might be important for homologous chromosome pairing during meiosis.