The Journal of organic chemistry

Molecular basis for enantioselectivity of lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum toward the diesters of 2,3-dihydro-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,3-trimethyl-1H-inden-5-ol.

PMID 11325269


2,3-Dihydro-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,3-trimethyl-1H-inden-5-ol, 1, is a chiral bisphenol useful for preparation of polymers. Previous screening of commercial hydrolases identified lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL) as a highly regio- and enantioselective catalyst for hydrolysis of diesters of 1. The regioselectivity was > or =30:1 favoring the ester at the 5-position, while the enantioselectivity varied with acyl chain length, showing the highest enantioselectivity (E = 48 +/- 20 S) for the dibutanoate ester. In this paper, we use a combination of nonsymmetrical diesters and computer modeling to identify that the remote ester group controls the enantioselectivity. First, we prepared nonsymmetrical diesters of (+/-)-1 using another regioselective, but nonenantioselective, reaction. Lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL) showed the opposite regioselectivity (>30:1), allowing removal of the ester at the 4'-position (the remote ester in the CVL-catalyzed reaction). Regioselective hydrolysis of (+/-)-1-dibutanoate (150 g) gave (+/-)-1-5-dibutanoate (89 g, 71% yield). Acylation gave nonsymmetrical diesters that varied at the 4'-position. With no ester at the 4'-position, CVL showed no enantioselectivity, while hindered esters (3,3-dimethylbutanoate) reacted 20 times more slowly, but retained enantioselectivity (E = 22). These results indicate that the remote ester group can control the enantioselectivity. Computer modeling confirmed these results and provided molecular details. A model of a phosphonate transition state analogue fit easily in the active site of the open conformation of CVL. A large hydrophobic pocket tilts to one side above the catalytic machinery. The tilt permits the remote ester at the 4'-position of only the (S)-enantiomer to bind in this pocket. The butanoate ester fits and fills this pocket and shows high enantioselectivity. Both smaller and larger ester groups show low enantioselectivity because small ester groups cannot fill this pocket, while longer ester groups extend beyond the pocket. An improved large-scale resolution of 1-dibutanoate with CVL gave (R)-(+)-1-dibutanoate (269 g, 47% yield, 92% ee) and (S)-(-)-1-4'-monobutanoate (245 g, 52% yield, 89% ee). Methanolysis yielded (R)-(+)-1 (169 g, 40% overall yield, >97% ee) and (S)-(-)-1 (122 g, 36% overall yield, >96% ee).

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