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Research communications in molecular pathology and pharmacology

Unique organoprotective properties of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cadmium chloride-induced nephrotoxicity, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced splenotoxicity and mocap-induced neurotoxicity in mice.


PMID 11334361

Abstract

Several observations, both in humans and laboratory animals, have suggested that proanthocyanidins exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological, therapeutic and chemoprotective properties. Specifically, some of our earlier studies have shown that IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE, commercially known as ActiVin) provides excellent concentration- and dose-dependent protection against toxicities induced by diverse agents, such as acetaminophen, hydrogen peroxide, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), smokeless-tobacco extract, idarubicin and 4-hydroxyperoxycyclophosphamide in both in vitro and in vivo models. In some models, GSPE proved to be a better cytoprotectant than vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. The purpose of this investigation was three fold: (i) to indirectly assess the bioavailability of GSPE in multiple target organs, (ii) quantify GSPE's capacity to avert cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced nephrotoxicity, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced splenotoxicity and O-ethyl-S,S-dipropyl phosphorodithioate (MOCAP)-induced neurotoxicity, and lastly (iii) to evaluate possible mechanisms of protection in mice. In order to determine all these, three separate experiments were designed and each experiment consisted of four groups, such as vehicle control, GSPE alone, toxicant alone and GSPE + toxicant. GSPE was administered orally (100 mg/Kg) for 7-8 days prior to the toxicant exposure. Parameters of the analyses included evaluation of serum chemistry changes (ALT, BUN and CK), histopathology and integrity of genomic DNA, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Results indicate that GSPE preexposure prior to cadmium chloride and DMN provided near complete protection in terms of serum chemistry changes (ALT, BUN and CK) and inhibition of both forms of cell death. e.g., apoptosis and necrosis. DNA damage, a common denominator usually associated with both apoptosis and necrosis was significantly reduced by GSPE treatment. Histopathological examination of organs correlated strongly with the changes in serum chemistry and the DNA modification data. Surprisingly, MOCAP exposure showed symptoms of neurotoxicity coupled with serum chemistry changes in the absence of any significant genomic DNA damage or brain pathology. Although, GSPE appeared to partially protect the neural tissue, it powerfully antagonized MOCAP-induced mortality. Taken together, this study suggests that in vivo GSPE-preexposure may protect multiple target organs from a variety of toxic assaults induced by diverse chemical entities.

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