International journal of cancer

Overexpression of Bcl-2 regulates sodium butyrate- and/or docetaxel-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo.

PMID 11391617


Sodium butyrate (NaBt), a physiologically occurring short-chain fatty acid, induces differentiation as well as apoptosis in numerous cell types, and this induction is partially regulated by Bcl-2 expression. The objectives of our study were to characterize the in vitro effects of NaBt and/or docetaxel on the growth, cell cycle and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells, and to determine whether tumor growth in vivo is inhibited by isobutyramide, an orally bioavailable Bt analogue, and/or docetaxel by using Bcl-2-transfected human bladder cancer cell line KoTCC-1/BH and control vector only-transfected cell line KoTCC-1/C. NaBt caused a decrease in growth of both KoTCC-1/C and KoTCC-1/BH cells, however, its growth inhibitory effect was significantly greater in KoTCC-1/C cells. One mM NaBt resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by up-regulation of p21 (waf1/cip1) and down-regulation of cyclin D1 in KoTCC-1/C cells, whereas KoTCC-1/BH showed resistance to G1 cell cycle arrest. An amount of 5 mM NaBt induced apoptosis, accompanied by up-regulation of Bak in KoTCC-1/C cells but failed to induce apoptosis in KoTCC-1/BH cells despite substantial down-regulation of Bcl-2. Oral administration of isobutyramide significantly reduced the KoTCC-1/C tumor volume compared with the KoTCC-1/BH tumor volume in nude mice. Furthermore, docetaxel induced Bcl-2 phosphorylation in KoTCC-1/BH cells and combined treatment with isobutyramide and docetaxel synergistically inhibited the growth of KoTCC-1/BH cells both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that isobutyramide therapy could be a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with bladder cancer if docetaxel is combined according to the Bcl-2 expression status.

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Isobutyramide, 99%