Fresenius' journal of analytical chemistry

Application of high-surface-area ZrO2 in preconcentration and determination of 18 elements by on-line flow injection with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.

PMID 11393237


A flow-injection analysis (FIA) system incorporating a micro-column of ZrO2 has been used for the development of an on-line multi-element method for the simultaneous preconcentration and determination of Al, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Sb, Sn, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The conditions for quantitative and reproducible preconcentration, elution, and subsequent on-line ICP-AES determination were established. A sample (pH 8) is pumped through the column at 3 mL min(-1) and sequentially eluted directly into the ICP-AES with 3 mol L(-1) HNO3. With a sample volume of 100 mL and an elution volume of 1 mL signal enhancement 100 times better than for conventional continuous aspirating systems was obtained for the elements studied. The reproducibility (RSD %) of the method at the 10 ng mL(-1) level in the eluate is acceptable - less than 8% for five replicates. Recoveries between 95.4% and 99.9% were obtained for the elements analysed. ZrO2, with a specific surface area of 57 m2 g(-1) and a capacity of approximately 5 mg g(-1) for the elements studied, was synthesized by hydrolysis of ZrCl4. The preconcentration system was evaluated for several simple synthetic matrices, standard water samples and synthetic seawater. The effect of foreign ions on the efficiency of preconcentration of the elements studied was investigated. The application of a micro-column filled with high-surface-area ZrO2 and flow injection inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry enables preconcentration and simultaneous determination of 18 elements at low concentrations (ng L(-1)) in different water samples.