Chemico-biological interactions

Mutational spectrum of 1,3-butadiene and metabolites 1,2-epoxybutene and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane to assess mutagenic mechanisms.

PMID 11397399


1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a multisite carcinogen and is mutagenic in multiple tissues of B6C3F1 mice. BD is bioactivated to at least three directly mutagenic metabolites: 1,2-epoxybutene (EB), 1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol (EBD), and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB). However, the contribution of these individual metabolites to the carcinogenicity and in vivo mutatidnal spectrum of BD is uncertain. To assess the role of two BD metabolites EB and DEB in the in vivo mutagenicity of the parent compound BD, we examined the in vitro mutational spectra of EB and DEB in human and rodent cells. We also examined the in vivo mutagenicity and mutational spectrum of inhaled EB in the lung. In the bone marrow and spleen of B6C3F1 laci transgenic mice, BD-induced an increased frequency of the identical class of point mutations at A:T base pairs: AT-->GC transitions and AT-->TA transversions. BD exposure also induced an increased frequency of GC-->AT transitions in the spleen that was not observed in bone marrow, demonstrating tissue-specific differences in mutation spectrum. Exposure of Rat2 laci transgenic cells and human TK6 lymphoblasts to EB-induced an increased frequency of AT-->TA transversions. DEB exposure induced an increased frequency of AT-->TA transversions and partial deletions at hprt in human cells. In Rat laci transgenic cells, DEB was not mutagenic at laci but induced an increased frequency of micronuclei. In contrast to inhaled BD, inhaled DEB and EB were not mutagenic in the bone marrow or spleen. However, EB was mutagenic in the lungs. In the lung of mice, EB-induced specific increases in GC-->AT transitions, AT-->TA transversions, and deletion events. AT-->TA transversions are the most consistent mutation observed across biological systems following in vivo exposure to BD or in vitro exposures to EB and DEB. Although, BD exposure in mice induces chromosomal alterations and single base substitutions, the specific BD metabolite that induces the genetic events leading to tumors is uncertain. At present, it appears that only DEB can effectively induce this range of mutagenic events at levels of this metabolite that occur in the blood of mice exposed to BD. Detailed investigations to identify relevant biomarkers of BD exposure and response, particularly DNA adducts or lesions, that can be biologically linked to the range of genotoxic events known to occur in mice exposed to BD are needed.

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3,4-Epoxy-1-butene, 98%