Molecular cloning of a novel human acid phosphatase gene (ACPT) that is highly expressed in the testis.

PMID 11414767


Acid phosphatases are enzymes capable of hydrolyzing orthophosphoric acid esters in an acid medium. Prostatic acid phosphatase has served as a tumor marker for metastatic prostate cancer for many years. We have cloned a new human acid phosphatase gene (named testicular acid phosphatase, ACPT), which is expressed mainly in testis and to a lower extent in the prostate, trachea, and other tissues. This gene maps to chromosome 19q13.4, in an area that harbors many cancer-related genes. The testicular acid phosphatase gene is composed of 11 exons, and the protein is predicted to have a luminal domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain. The N-terminal end of the protein encodes a signal peptide. The protein has approximately 50% homology with both the prostatic and the lysosomal acid phosphatases, and the position of the cysteine residues, the N-glycosylation sites, and the histidine catalytic site are conserved among the three proteins. The testicular acid phosphatase gene is up-regulated by androgens and is down-regulated by estrogens in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Our preliminary results indicate that this gene exhibits a lower level of expression in testicular cancer tissues than in their normal counterparts.