Journal of AOAC International

Determination of five pesticide residues in oranges by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography to estimate daily intake of consumers.

PMID 11417653


Residues of benzoylphenylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and flufenuxuron), carboxamide acaricides (hexythiazox), and carbamate insecticides (benfuracarb) were determined in 150 orange fruit samples from September 1998 to June 1999, to estimate exposure of the Valencian population to oranges contaminated with these newly developed pesticides. The method for monitoring these residues is based on matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography with UV or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (APCI/MS) detection. Orange samples representing 11 varieties were collected from an agricultural cooperative and examined for the 5 pesticides. In 74.6% of all analyzed samples, the pesticide residues were below detection limits, which ranged from 0.002 to 0.05 mg/kg. Residues were detected in 25.4% of the samples, with higher incidences of diflubenzuron, flufenuxuron, hexythiazox, and benfuracarb; hexaflumuron residues were detected only occasionally. Two different pesticides exceeded maximum residue limits (MRLs) in 4 (2.7%) of the orange samples. Diflubenzuron surpassed 1 mg/kg MRL in 3 samples and flufenuxuron exceeded the 0.3 mg/kg MRL in 3 samples. The estimated daily intake of the 5 pesticide residues during the period was 0.077 microg/kg body weight per day. This value is much lower than the total admissible daily intake proposed by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization.