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Journal of the American Chemical Society

The antioxidant profile of 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]furan-5-ol and its 1-thio, 1-seleno, and 1-telluro analogues.


PMID 11472114

Abstract

A novel synthesis of 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene-5-ol based on intramolecular homolytic substitution on sulfur was reported. The "antioxidant profile" of the series of 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]furan-5-ol (2a) its 1-thio (2b), 1-seleno (2c) and 1-telluro (2d) analogues was determined by studies of redox properties, the capacity to inhibit stimulated lipid peroxidation, the reactivity toward tert-butoxyl radicals, the ability to catalyze decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of glutathione, and the inhibiting effect on stimulated peroxidation in liver microsomes. The one-electron reduction potentials of the aroxyl radicals corresponding to compounds 2a-2d, E degrees (ArO(*)/ArO(-)) were 0.49, 0.49, 0.49, and 0.52 V vs NHE, respectively, as determined by pulse radiolysis. With increasing chalcogen substitution the compounds become slightly more acidic (pK(a) = 10.6, 10.0, 9.9, and 9.5, respectively, for compounds 2a-2d). By using Hess' law, the homolytic O-H bond dissociation enthalpies of compounds 2a-2d (340, 337, 336, and 337 kJ mol(-)(1), respectively) were calculated. The reduction potentials for the proton coupled oxidation of compounds 2a-2d (ArOH --> ArO(*) + H(+)) as determined by cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile were 1.35 (irreversible), 1.35 (quasireversible) 1.13 (reversible), and 0.74 (reversible) V vs NHE, respectively. As judged by the inhibited rates of peroxidation, R(inh), in a water/chlorobenzene two-phase lipid peroxidation system containing N-acetylcysteine as a thiol-reducing agent in the aqueous phase, the antioxidant capacity increases (2d > 2c = 2b > 2a) as one traverses the group of chalcogens. Whereas the times of inhibition, T(inh), were slightly reduced for the oxygen (2a) and sulfur (2b) derivatives in the absence of the thiol-reducing agent, they were drastically reduced for the selenium (2c) and tellurium (2d) derivatives. This seems to indicate that the organochalcogen compounds are continuously regenerated at the lipid aqueous interphase and that regeneration is much more efficient for the selenium and tellurium compounds. The absolute rate constants for the oxidation of compounds 2a-2b by the tert-butoxyl radical in acetonitrile/di-tert-butyl peroxide (10/1) were the same-2 x 10(8) M(-)(1) s(-)(1). Whereas the oxygen, sulfur, and selenium derivatives 2a-2c were essentially void of any glutathione peroxidase-like activity, the organotellurium compound 2d accelerated the initial reduction of hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and cumene hydroperoxide in the presence of glutathione 100, 333, and 213 times, respectively, as compared to the spontaneous reaction. Compounds 2a-2d were assessed for their capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes stimulated by Fe(II)/ADP/ascorbate. Whereas the oxygen, sulfur, and selenium compounds showed weak inhibiting activity (IC(50) values of approximately 250, 25, and 13 microM, respectively), the organotellurium compound 2d was a potent inhibitor with an IC(50) value of 0.13 microM.

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183962
2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran, 99%
C8H8O