Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie

Species- and sex-specific renal cytotoxicity of ochratoxin A and B in vitro.

PMID 11484842


Four different cell models were chosen for comparison of OTA and OTB toxicity: primary porcine (PKC), rat (RPTC) and human renal proximal epithelial cells (HKC) from both sexes and a porcine renal cell line: LLC-PK1. Culture conditions were tested and optimized for each respective cell type (species/sex and origin). All cell types were characterized for epithelial origin and growth patterns and following optimization of dosing strategies and assay procedures, a strict study design was implemented to avoid systemic variations. Due to possible sensitivity differences, three simple endpoints were chosen to provide basic data for interspecies comparison: neutral red uptake, MTT reduction and cell number. Of the endpoints tested neutral red appeared the most sensitive, although all three parameters yielded comparable EC50's. Sex-differences were observed between male and female HKC cells following 96 h exposure to OTA, with HKC(m) being more sensitive than HKC(f). No sex-difference was observed in PKC cells, however, the PKC were approximately 3 and 10 times more sensitive than HKC(m) and HKC(f), respectively, to OTA and OTB. Interestingly, the CI95 of the EC50 values obtained for OTA (15.5-16.5 microM) and OTB (17.0-2 1.0 microM) were comparable in the PKC cells. In contrast, OTB had lower cytotoxicity than OTA in HKC and LLC-PK1 (approx. 2-fold) and no effects in RPTC. Overall, HKC(m) were nearly as sensitive as PKC towards OTA, followed by RPTC, LLC-PK1 and HKC(f), thus suggesting a sex specific sensitivity in humans towards OTA induced cytotoxicity.

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Ochratoxin B solution, 10 μg/mL in acetonitrile, analytical standard