Environmental monitoring and assessment

Background monitoring and long-range transport of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 at Kosan, Korea.

PMID 11516020


The background concentrations of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 were monitored to assess their impact on stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming from September 1995 to March 1999 at Kosan, Korea, located at eastern margin of the Asian Continent. The concentrations of atmospheric CFC-11 at Kosan have decreased slightly, at a rate of -2.5 pptv yr(-1), over the period in response to the Montreal Protocol. The CFC-12 mixing ratio at Kosan continues to increase in the atmosphere at a rate of 5.7 pptv yr(-1) despite international regulations, because of its extreme atmosphere persistence. Recent trends of these two chlorofluorocarbons at Kosan, Korea were concordant with those of the northern hemispheric background monitored unit at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. The maximum seasonal mean mixing ratios of CFC-11 and CFC-12 at Kosan, Korea, were 270 +/- 4 pptv in the spring and 538 +/- 9 pptv in the winter, and the corresponding seasonal minima were 267 +/- 7 and 529 +/- 12 pptv. This occurred in the summer and was due to southeasterly winds from the northwestern Pacific Ocean. By performing a three-day isentropic backward trajectory analysis, it was shown that air masses at Kosan, and with the exception of summer, mainly originated from central and northern China. In particular, the mixing ratios of these two contaminant species are closely related with their air mass trajectories.