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Molecular immunology

N-substituted benzamides inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB and nuclear factor of activated T cells activity while inducing activator protein 1 activity in T lymphocytes.


PMID 11566320

Abstract

N-substituted benzamides are compounds that have recently been reported to inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity and induce apoptosis in a pre-B cell line. In this study, we focused on the effects of N-substituted benzamides on transcriptional regulation in Jurkat T cells. We used a model system where the cells can be stimulated either through TCR/CD28 or by treatment of the cells with PMA and ionomycin to induce transcription factors typical for T lymphocyte activation. Treatment of the Jurkat cells with procainamide did not influence the transcription factor profile of stimulated cells, while treatment with a derivative having an acetyl group in position 4 of the aromatic ring inhibited NF-kappaB and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activity. Declopramide, which contains a chloride in position 3 of the aromatic ring, was inactive in this system, whereas also the acetylated derivative of this compound inhibited NF-kappaB and NFAT activity. In contrast, the transcriptional activity and nuclear expression of activator protein 1 induced by TCR/CD28 stimulation or PMA and ionomycin treatment was enhanced by the acetylated variants of the N-substituted benzamides. Finally, we investigated the effect of N-substituted benzamides on intact promoters for two genes central in immune regulation; the CD40 ligand (CD40L) and IL-2 promoters. The transcriptional activity of the CD40L promoter as well as surface expression of the CD40L induced by signaling through TCR/CD28 was inhibited by addition of acetylated N-substituted benzamides, while the transcriptional activity of the IL-2 promoter was enhanced. Taken together, these data indicate that derivatives of N-substituted benzamides are potential drug candidates for quantitative as well as qualitative modulation of immune functions.

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