Nonlinear free energy relationship in the general-acid-catalyzed acylation of rat kidney gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase by a series of gamma-glutamyl anilide substrate analogues.

PMID 11601992


The gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) purified from rat kidney reacts with a series of eight parasubstituted L-glutamyl gamma-anilides, in the presence of Gly-Gly, catalyzing the formation of gamma-Glu-Gly-Gly (pH 8.0, 37 degrees C). The transpeptidation reaction was followed through the discontinuous colorimetric determination of the concentration of released parasubstituted aniline. Steady-state kinetic studies were performed to measure k(cat) and K(M) values for each anilide substrate. A Hammett plot constructed by the correlation of log(k(cat)) and the sigma(-) parameter for each anilide substrate displays statistically significant upward curvature, consistent with a general-acid-catalyzed acylation mechanism in which the geometry of the transition state changes with the nature of the para substituent. Kinetic isotope effects were measured and are consistent with a reaction involving a proton in flight at the rate-limiting transition state. The pH-rate profiles measured over pH 7.0-9.5 are bell-shaped with kinetic pK(a) values that may be attributed to the active site nucleophile (or its general-base catalytic partner) and the active-site general acid. The variation of the latter pK(a) value as a function of temperature is consistent with an enthalpy of ionization expected for an ammonium ion acting as a general acid. Examination of the variation of k(cat) as a function of temperature gave values for the enthalpy and entropy of activation that are similar to those determined for the general-acid-catalyzed breakdown of the tetrahedral intermediate formed during acylation of chymotrypsin by similar amide substrates.