Mutation research

Synthesis of 2-phenylbenzotriazole-type mutagens, PBTA-5 and PBTA-6, and their detection in river water from Japan.

PMID 11673076


We previously determined the chemical structures of four 2-phenylbenzotriazole mutagens (PBTA-1, -2, -3 and -4) in blue rayon-adsorbed material from the Nishitakase River in Kyoto prefecture and the Nikko River in Aichi prefecture in Japan. On the basis of a synthesis study, these four PBTA derivatives were deduced to have originated from corresponding dinitrophenylazo dyes by reduction and chlorination. 2-[(2-Bromo-4,6-dinitrophenyl)azo]-5-[bis(2-acetoxyethyl) amino]-4-methoxyacetanilide (Color Index Name, Disperse Blue 79:1; CAS Registry Number, 75497-74-4) is a very common dinitrophenylazo dye used in textile dyeing factories. In the present study, we synthesized 2-[4-[bis(2-acetoxyethyl)amino]-2-(acetylamino)-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-5) from Disperse Blue 79:1 by reduction with sodium hydrosulfite and subsequent chlorination with sodium hypochlorite. On hydrolysis of PBTA-5 with alkali, 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-6) was obtained. Both PBTA-5 and -6 were potent mutagens, inducing 723,000 revertants and 485,000 revertants per microgram of Salmonella typhimurium YG1024, respectively, in the presence of S9 mix. To clarify whether PBTA-5 and -6 exist in the environment, water samples were collected from five rivers flowing through regions where textile dyeing industries are developed. PBTA-6 was detected at levels of 3-134 ng/g blue rayon in all water samples that were examined. On the other hand, the amount of PBTA-5 in the samples was less than the detection limit.