Chemical research in toxicology

Antibodies directed to drug epitopes to investigate the structure of drug-protein photoadducts. Recognition of a common photobound substructure in tiaprofenic acid/ketoprofen cross-photoreactivity.

PMID 11712905


Drug-induced photoallergy is an immune adverse reaction to the combined effect of drugs and light. From the mechanistic point of view, it first involves covalent binding of drug to protein resulting in the formation of a photoantigen. Hence, determination of the structures of drug-protein photoadducts is of great relevance to understand the molecular basis of photoallergy and cross-immunoreactivity among drugs. Looking for new strategies to investigate the covalent photobinding of drugs to proteins, we generated highly specific antibodies to drug chemical substructures. The availability of such antibodies has allowed us to discriminate between the different modes by which tiaprofenic acid (TPA), suprofen (SUP), and ketoprofen (KTP) photobind to proteins. The finding that the vast majority of the TPA photoadduct can be accounted for by means of antibody anti-benzoyl strongly supports the view that the drug binds preferentially via the thiophene ring, leaving the benzene ring more accessible. By contrast, selective recognition of SUP-protein photoadducts by antibody anti-thenoyl evidences a preferential coupling via the benzene ring leaving the thiophene moiety more distant from the protein matrix. In the case of KTP, photoadducts are exclusively recognized by antibody anti-benzoyl, indicating that the benzene ring is again more accessible. As a result of this research, we have been able to identify a common substructure that is present in TPA-albumin and KTP-albumin photoadducts. This is remarkable since, at a first sight, the greatest structural similarities can be found between TPA and SUP as they share the same benzoylthiophene chromophore. These findings can explain the previously reported observations of cross-reactivity to KTP (or TPA) in patients photosensitized to TPA (or KTP).

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T1410900 Tiaprofenic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard