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Veterinary and human toxicology

Accidental ingestion of alprazolam in 415 dogs.


PMID 11824768

Abstract

Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine anti-anxiety agent that acts at the limbic, thalamic, and hypothalamic level of the CNS and has anxioytic. sedative, hypnotic, skeletal muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant properties. A retrospective study was conducted of 415 alprazolam ingestions in dogs reported to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center between January 1998 and August 2000: 238 suspected alprazolam toxicoses in dogs were evaluated. Clinical signs were ataxia/disorientation, depression, hyperactivity, vomiting, weakness, tremors, vocalization, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypothermia, diarrhea, and increased salivation that developed within 10-30 min post-ingestion. Treatment included standard decontamination procedures, such as emesis and activated charcoal: the specific benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil, may be used for severe CNS depression.