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Drugs

Gliclazide modified release.


PMID 12076188

Abstract

Gliclazide modified release (MR) is a new formulation of the drug gliclazide and is given once daily. The hydrophilic matrix of hypromellose-based polymer in the new formulation effects a progressive release of the drug which parallels the 24-hour glycaemic profile in untreated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The formulation shows high bioavailability and its absorption profile is unaffected by coadministration with food. Mean plasma glucose levels are significantly reduced over a 24-hour period in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with gliclazide MR once daily, in both fasting and postprandial states. No cardiovascular ATP-sensitive potassium channel interaction has been observed at therapeutic concentrations of gliclazide MR. Gliclazide MR has also demonstrated antioxidant properties that are independent of glycaemic control. In a randomised, double-blind, multicentre study, gliclazide MR 30 to 120 mg once daily showed similar efficacy to gliclazide immediate release (IR) 80 to 320 mg/day (in divided doses for doses >80 mg) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus over a 10-month period, reducing glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to a similar extent. The drug appeared most efficacious in patients who had previously been treated by diet alone, where significant reductions in HbA(1c) from baseline of 0.9% and 0.95% were seen at 10 and 24 months. Similarly, a sustained effect of gliclazide MR was observed in a subgroup of elderly patients defined a priori; HbA(1c) was decreased to a similar degree to that observed in the general study population. Gliclazide MR showed similar tolerability to gliclazide IR after 10 months' treatment in the randomised trial. The most commonly observed adverse events were arthralgia, arthritis, back pain and bronchitis (each <5%). Bodyweight remained stable. In this study no episodes of nocturnal hypoglycaemia or hypoglycaemia requiring third party assistance were observed during treatment with gliclazide MR. Episodes of symptomatic hypoglycaemia were infrequent, occurring in approximately 5% of patients.