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Chemosphere

Antifouling paint booster biocide contamination in Greek marine sediments.


PMID 12146627

Abstract

Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to organotin compounds in antifouling products, after restrictions imposed on the use of tributyltin in 1987. In this study, the concentrations of three biocides commonly used as antifoulants, Irgarol 1051 (2-methylthio-4-tertiary-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine), dichlofluanid (N-dichlorofluoromethylthio-N',N'-dimethyl-N-phenyl sulphamide) and chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloro isophthalonitrile) were determined in sediments from ports and marinas of Greece. Piraeus (Central port, Mikrolimano and Pasalimani marinas), Thessaloniki (Central port and marina), Patras (Central port and marina), Elefsina, Igoumenitsa, Aktio and Chalkida marinas were chosen as representative study sites for comparison with previous monitoring surveys of biocides in coastal sediments from other European countries. Samples were collected at the end of one boating season (October 1999), as well before and during the 2000 boating season. All the compounds monitored were detected at most of sites and seasonal dependence of biocide concentrations were found, with maxima during the period June-September, while the winter period (December-February) lower values were encountered. The concentrations levels ranged from 3 to 690 ng/g dw (dry weight). Highest levels of the biocides were found in marinas (690, 195 and 165 ng/g dw, for Irgarol, dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil respectively) while in ports lower concentrations were observed. Antifouling paints are implicated as the likely sources of biocides since agricultural applications possibly contributed for chlorothalonil and dichlofluanid inputs in a few sampling sites.