Mutation research

Seasonal fluctuation of the mutagenicity of river water in Fukui, Japan, and the contribution of 2-phenylbenzotriazole-type mutagens.

PMID 12160904


To clarify their mutagenic potential, samples of water from the Mawatari, Asuwa and Kitsune rivers, which flow through the central area of Fukui, Japan, were seasonally collected at six sites using blue rayon from July 1998 to August 2000. Forty-five of 52 (87%) of the water samples exhibited mutagenicity toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 and YG1029 with and without S9 mix, and the highest potencies were observed in YG1024 with S9 mix. The samples collected in summer and autumn tended to be more mutagenic than those collected in winter and spring. Fractionation using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggests that several compounds are responsible for the mutagenicity of river water samples, and some of the major mutagens seem to be common among the samples. Three 2-phenylbenzotriazole (PBTA)-type mutagens, 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-3), 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-amino-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-4) and 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-6), were quantified in samples collected between July 1998 and April 1999. At least one of these PBTA-type mutagens was detected in 23/24 (96%) of the samples. The amounts of PBTA-3, -4 and -6 were <0.08-58.7, <0.1-15.0 and <0.07-467.9 ng/g of blue rayon, respectively, and high levels of PBTA congeners were detected in the samples collected from each river in July and November 1998. The contributions of these PBTA congeners to the mutagenicity of water samples were also high in July and November 1998. The highest total contribution was observed for samples from the Asuwa river (67.6%). These findings suggest that these three rivers were continually and heavily contaminated with mutagens, and PBTA congeners were some of the major mutagens in these rivers.