Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Determination of isoxaflutole (balance) and its metabolites in water using solid phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet or mass spectrometry.

PMID 12358444


Balance (isoxaflutole, IXF) belongs to a new family of herbicides referred to as isoxazoles. IXF has a very short soil half-life (<24 h), degrading to a biologically active diketonitrile (DKN) metabolite that is more polar and considerably more stable. Further degradation of the DKN metabolite produces a nonbiologically active benzoic acid (BA) metabolite. Analytical methods using solid phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV (HPLC-UV) or high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) were developed for the analysis of IXF and its metabolites in distilled deionized water and ground water samples. To successfully detect and quantify the BA metabolite by HPLC-UV from ground water samples, a sequential elution scheme was necessary. Using HPLC-UV, the mean recoveries from sequential elution of the parent and its two metabolites from fortified ground water samples ranged from 68.6 to 101.4%. For HPLC-MS, solid phase extraction of ground water samples was performed using a polystyrene divinylbenzene polymer resin. The mean HPLC-MS recoveries of the three compounds from ground water samples spiked at 0.05-2 microg/L ranged from 100.9 to 110.3%. The limits of quantitation for HPLC-UV are approximately 150 ng/L for IXF, 100 ng/L for DKN, and 250 ng/L for BA. The limit of quantitation by HPLC-MS is 50 ng/L for each compound. The methods developed in this work can be applied to determine the transport and fate of Balance in the environment.

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Isoxaflutole, PESTANAL®, analytical standard