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Fixed combination trandolapril/verapamil sustained-release: a review of its use in essential hypertension.


PMID 12421112

Abstract

In well designed studies in patients with mild to moderate hypertension, combinations of the sustained-release (SR) formulation of the nondihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist verapamil 120 to 240 mg/day and the ACE inhibitor trandolapril 0.5 to 8 mg/day were significantly more effective in reducing sitting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from baseline than placebo. In most randomised studies, combinations of verapamil SR 120 to 240 mg/day and trandolapril 0.5 to 8 mg/day were significantly more effective in lowering sitting DBP and SBP than the corresponding monotherapies administered at the same dosage. Trandolapril/verapamil SR 2/180 mg/day provided significantly more effective 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) control than of the corresponding monotherapies. Moreover, trandolapril/verapamil SR reduced BP in patients inadequately controlled with either of the corresponding monotherapies. The antihypertensive efficacy of trandolapril/verapamil SR 2/180 mg/day was generally similar to that of other combinations of antihypertensive agents (metoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol/chlorthalidone, lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide, enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide) in patients with hypertension, including those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Trandolapril/verapamil SR reduced BP in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes or primary renal disease, Black patients and elderly patients. Trandolapril/verapamil SR was more effective than the individual components administered as monotherapy in reducing proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes or primary renal disease. Trandolapril/verapamil SR had a neutral or beneficial effect on metabolic parameters (glucose, insulin, lipids) in patients with hypertension, including those with type 2 diabetes. Trandolapril/verapamil SR preserved left ventricular function in patients with heart failure. Fewer cardiac events occurred after therapy with trandolapril/verapamil SR than after trandolapril alone in post-myocardial infarction patients with congestive heart failure. The incidence of adverse events in recipients of trandolapril/verapamil SR was similar to that of the individual components, and that of other combination therapies. In placebo-controlled trials conducted in the US, headache, upper respiratory tract infections, cough, constipation, atrioventricular block (first degree) and dizziness were the most commonly reported adverse events in recipients of combinations of verapamil SR (120 to 240 mg/day) and trandolapril (0.5 to 8 mg/day). In conclusion, the fixed-dose combination of trandolapril/verapamil SR is an effective treatment for patients with hypertension, including those with type 2 diabetes. Trandolapril/verapamil SR tended to be more effective than monotherapy with either verapamil SR or trandolapril, and generally showed antihypertensive efficacy similar to that of other combination antihypertensive therapies. Current data support the use of trandolapril/verapamil SR as an alternative treatment when monotherapy with either agent is not effective. Data from large clinical trials currently being conducted will assist in fully defining the role of trandolapril/verapamil SR as a cardio- and renoprotective agent.

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