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Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators

Phospholipase A2 receptor: a regulator of biological functions of secretory phospholipase A2.


PMID 12432910

Abstract

The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein related to the C-type animal lectin family that includes the mannose receptor. PLA2R regulates a variety of biological responses elicited by specific types of secretory PLA2s (sPLA2s). Group IB sPLA2 (sPLA2-IB) acts as an endogenous PLA2R ligand to induce cell proliferation, cell migration, and lipid mediator production. Analysis of PLA2R-deficient mice has suggested a potential role of the sPLA2-IB/PLA2R pathway in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in endotoxic shock. PLA2R is also involved in the clearance of sPLA2s, including group X sPLA2 (sPLA2-X) and a particular type of snake venom sPLA2, and clearance suppresses their potent enzymatic activities. In the circulation, the soluble form of PLA2R is constitutively present as anendogenous inhibitor of sPLA2s. This review will focus on recent findings on the roles of PLA2R in regulating sPLA2 functions and summarize what is known about the otherbinding proteins for mammalian and snake venom sPLA2s.

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