Cancer metastasis reviews

Micronutrients in cancer chemoprevention.

PMID 12549762


The selection of micronutrients, defined as essential and nonessential dietary components consumed in minute quantities, for testing in clinical chemoprevention trials is based on the totality of evidence arising from epidemiologic, in vitro, animal, and clinical studies. Those micronutrients that surface with chemopreventive potential, in terms of high efficacy and low toxicity, in early-phase clinical studies are then candidates for large-scale, randomized clinical chemoprevention trials with cancer endpoints. Micronutrients currently being examined in National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored phase I, II, or III chemoprevention trials for prostate, breast, and colon cancers include isoflavones, lycopene, selenized yeast, selenomethionine, selenium, vitamin E, perillyl alcohol, folic acid, vitamin D, calcium, and curcumin. The response to micronutrients may vary not only in magnitude but also in direction. This variation and response likely depend on individual genetic polymorphisms and/or interactions among dietary components that influence absorption, metabolism, or site of action. Research priorities include investigation of possible molecular targets for micronutrients and whether genetic and epigenetic events dictate direction and magnitude of the response.