The Biochemical journal

Identification of S1 proteins B2, C1 and D1 as AUF1 isoforms and their major role as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein proteins.

PMID 12625834


AUF1 (A+U-rich RNA binding factor) participates in the rapid decay of mRNAs in the cytoplasm. It is sometimes called heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) D0; however, evidence for its characterization as an hnRNP protein has been scarce. S1 proteins A-D are those selectively extracted at pH 4.9 from isolated nuclei pretreated with either RNase A or DNase I. In the present study we identified S1 ('first supernatant') proteins B2, C1 and D1 with p45, p40 and p37 AUF1s respectively, by microsequencing and product analysis of transfected cDNAs. We found, further, that more than 96% of the S1 proteins occurred in the nucleus, and localized largely in RNase-sensitive structures. B2 was confined in the nucleus and C1 directly bound to heterogeneous nuclear RNAs (hnRNAs). These B2 and C1 proteins formed hnRNP structures responsible for the 33 S, and, to lesser extent, the 40 S particles, which were liberated upon mild nucleolytic cleavage. On the other hand, D1 and the remainder of C1 were associated with nuclease-hypersensitive sites of hnRNAs, and comprised the major cytoplasmic AUF1s that may be involved in mRNA decay. Two-dimensional immunoblotting resolved each S1 isoform into up to six spots or more, and suggested that the previous uncertain relationship of hnRNP D0 and hnRNP D is resolved in terms of charge differences and differential splicing arising from one gene. The present results thus indicate that S1 proteins B2, C1 and D1 are identical with AUF1 proteins, but largely occur as hnRNP proteins in the nucleus. That hnRNP D0 is indeed an hnRNP protein was verified.