The Journal of biological chemistry

Paired basic/Furin-like proprotein convertase cleavage of Pro-BMP-1 in the trans-Golgi network.

PMID 12637569


Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-1 is a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase that cleaves a variety of extracellular matrix substrates, including type I procollagen. Little is known about the site of action of BMP-1, although the extracellular matrix seems likely to be it. BMP-1 is synthesized with an N-terminal prodomain. The removal of the prodomain presumably activates the proteinase. In this study we show that the prodomain is cleaved in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and by furin-like/paired basic proprotein convertases. Inhibitors of furin resulted in the secretion of pro-BMP-1, which could not cleave procollagen. Recombinant furin cleaved the prodomain from pro-BMP-1. Site-directed mutagenesis of the prodomain cleavage site (RSRR) to RSAA resulted in efficient secretion of pro-BMP-1. Therefore, prodomain cleavage was not required for secretion. Using peptide N-glycosidase and neuraminidase digestion to determine the post-translational status of pro-BMP-1 during its conversion to BMP-1, we showed that BMP-1 first appears in the TGN during sialylation of the molecule. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies using an antibody to the nascent N terminus of BMP-1 showed localization to the TGN and plasma membrane. The observation that BMP-1 occurs inside the cell raises the possibility that BMP-1 might begin to cleave its substrates prior to secretion to the extracellular matrix.