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International journal of experimental pathology

Studies on the haemotoxicity of chloramphenicol succinate in the Dunkin Hartley guinea pig.


PMID 12641819

Abstract

In man, chloramphenicol (CAP), induces two major haemotoxic effects. First, a reversible, dose-related reticulocytopenia and anaemia developing during treatment. Second, a non-dose-related aplastic anaemia (AA), developing weeks after treatment, is often irreversible and fatal. In previous studies, we developed a mouse model of the reversible reticulocytopenia/anaemia using CAP succinate (CAPS); attempts to induce AA in the mouse with CAPS were unsuccessful; in the rat, CAPS induced only minimal haemotoxicity. We therefore wished to investigate haematological changes caused by CAPS in a third rodent, particularly in relation to the induction of significant 'late stage' bone marrow depression (AA). Female guinea pigs were gavaged with CAPS in three experiments. In a dose ranging study, CAPS (at 2500 and 3500 mg/kg) was administered daily for 9 days, and blood examined at 1 day post dosing. CAPS induced increased erythrocyte values (an apparent haemoconcentration effect), and reduced reticulocytes and femoral marrow nucleated cell counts (FNCC). In a second experiment, CAPS was given at 333, 666 and 1000 mg/kg (13 days); haematological changes were compared with results from the initial study, with evidence of dose-related effects. In a final experiment, CAPS was administered (825 mg/kg, 16 days) and blood studied at 1, 12, 28 and 63 days post dosing. At day 1, erythrocyte values were decreased (NS), and reticulocytes and FNCC were reduced; the marrow was hypocellular with erythroid depletion. At 12 and 28 days, values returned towards the normal range. At 63 days, parameters were normal. Thus, CAPS (825 mg/kg for 16 days) induced changes comparable to the reversible bone marrow depression seen in man; but there was no evidence of 'late stage' (i.e. at 63 days) marrow depression, as would be seen in a developing or overt marrow aplasia (AA). The guinea pig (like the mouse) is a model for the early events, but is not a good model for CAP-induced AA in man.