Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of metomidate in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

PMID 12667178


Metomidate was administered to halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) intravenously at a dose of 3 mg/kg bodyweight, as a bath treatment at a dose of 9 mg/L water for 5 min to study the disposition of metomidate, and as bath treatment (9 mg/L) for 10 min to study the absorption and effect of metomidate on respiration and balance/motor control. Additionally, turbot were given metomidate orally at a dose of 7 mg/kg. The studies were performed in seawater at a temperature of 10.3 +/- 0.4 degrees C (halibut) and 18.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C (turbot). Pharmacokinetic modeling of the data showed that metomidate had shorter elimination half-life and higher plasma concentrations in turbot compared with halibut, both species displaying a rapid uptake, distribution and excretion. Following intravenous administration, the volumes of distribution at steady state (Vd(ss)) were 0.21 L/kg (halibut) and 0.44 L/kg (turbot). Plasma clearances (Cl) were 0.099 L/ in halibut and 0.26 L/ in turbot and the elimination half-lives (t(1/2)lambdaz) were calculated to be 5.8 h and 2.2 h in halibut and turbot, respectively. Mean residence times (MRT) were 2.2 h in halibut and 1.7 h in turbot. Following oral administration, the t(1/2)lambdaz was 3.5 h in turbot. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 7.8 mg/L in turbot 1 h after administration. The oral bioavailability (F) was calculated to 100% in turbot. Following 5 min bath the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax), which were observed immediately after end of the bath, were 9.5 mg/L and 13.3 mg/L in halibut and turbot, respectively. Metomidate rapidly immobilized the fish, with respiratory depression, reduced heart rate, and loss of balance/motor control within 1 min (mean). Recovery was slow, with resumed balance/motor control after 26.4 min. Opercular respiration movements were resumed more rapidly with a recorded mean of 1.7 min. Oral administration was demonstrated to be a way of immobilizing fish, for example in large aquariums, without exposing them to unwanted stress.

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E2503004 Etomidate impurity B, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard