Mutation research

Modulation of the mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines by organophosphate insecticides and their metabolites.

PMID 12694750


People are commonly exposed to organophosphorus ester (OP) insecticides through the treatment of pets, homes, lawns, gardens, workplaces and in commercial agriculture. Aromatic amines are another chemical class with wide human exposure particularly dietary heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs). Previously, we reported that specific aromatic amines and ethyl paraoxon (the metabolite of the insecticide ethyl parathion) induced enhanced mutagenic responses in Salmonella typhimurium. In the present study, we demonstrated that the mutagenicity of 2-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene (2AAAF) and the heterocyclic dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) was enhanced in the presence of the OP insecticides, ethyl parathion or methyl parathion or a metabolite (methyl paraoxon). The mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-(4,5-f)quinoline (IQ) was increased by methyl parathion and methyl paraoxon but not by ethyl parathion. This mutagenic synergy was expressed in S. typhimurium strain YG1024. Mammalian microsomal activation was required for PhIP and IQ to express mutagenic synergy. Synergistic responses are rarely incorporated in risk assessment models, yet such responses are important in establishing accurate toxicological characteristics of agents. Under real world conditions where people are exposed to a multitude of agents, the results of this study raise a concern about the environmental and public health impacts of OP insecticides.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

Paraoxon-methyl, PESTANAL®, analytical standard