Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of the organophosphorus insecticide acephate.

PMID 12797729


A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for the organophosphorus insecticide acephate, O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate, was developed using a polyclonal antibody. Five different haptens mimicking the analyte were synthesized and conjugated with the carrier proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) by the N-hydroxysuccinimide active ester and diazotization methods. Polyclonal antibodies raised against hapten-KLH conjugates in rabbits and hapten-BSA conjugates as coating antigens were screened and selected for the assay in the homologous and heterologous ELISA systems. The effects of various assay conditions such as detergent, organic solvents, pH, and preincubation of the mixture of the polyclonal antibody and the analyte on the sensitivity were evaluated. The IC(50) value for acephate was 25 ng/mL in an optimized heterologous system using hapten-4-BSA as a coating antigen and a polyclonal antibody no. 8377 against hapten-1-KLH, showing the detection range of 5-140 ng/mL and the lowest detection limit of 2 ng/mL. The cross-reactivities of the structurally related organophosphorus insecticides, including the major metabolite of the analyte, methamidophos, were less than 1%. Recoveries from the analyte-fortified tap water, mulberry leaves, and lettuce samples in the assay were in the range of 72-121% by simple extraction, concentration, and dilution. These results indicate that the ELISA could be a convenient and supplemental analytical tool for monitoring acephate residues in environmental and agricultural samples.

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