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Mutation research

Heritable alterations at the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) locus in human lymphoblastoid cell lines.


PMID 1281280

Abstract

Human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from WI-L2 exhibit unexpected frequencies of diaminopurine (DAP) resistant mutants. The background mutant fractions of 10(-7) to 10(-8) in untreated cultures are much lower than the frequencies expected for loss of a heterozygous autosomal locus (10(-5) to 10(-6), yet much higher than expected for a homozygous locus (10(-10) to 10(-12). We used aminopterin, adenine and thymidine (AAT) to select DAP-sensitive (DAPS) revertants from one resistant line. The background frequency of DAPR in these revertant cell lines ranged from 3.5 to 6.5 x 10(-4), approximately the square root of 10(-7). Thus these data suggest that both alleles of aprt are inactivated at similarly high frequencies. They also indicate that the DAPS revertants were heterozygotes (aprt +/-) or hemizygotes (aprt +/0) and that WI-L2 was homozygous (aprt+/+). Mutational dose-response studies with X-rays, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), and ICR-191 were conducted in 4 of these revertant cell lines. EMS and ICR-191, which induce mainly point mutations, did not induce an increase in mutant fraction. A dose of 200 cGy X-rays, however, induced a frequency of 10(-3). Treatment of DAPR cells with 5-azacytidine induced a significant increase in reversion to DAPS. Southern blot analysis of the aprt gene after digestion with MspI or HpaII also suggests that differential methylation changes may play a major role in the generation of DAP sensitivity and resistance.

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