Magma (New York, N.Y.)

Signal enhancement through heteronuclear polarisation transfer in in-vivo 31P MR spectroscopy of the human brain.

PMID 12884109


Significant (31)P NMR signal enhancement through heteronuclear polarisation transfer was obtained in model solutions and in vivo on a 1.5-T whole-body MR scanner equipped with two RF channels. The much higher population differences involved in proton Zeeman energy levels can be transferred to the (31)P levels with the refocused INEPT (insensitive nucleus enhancement by polarisation transfer) double-resonance experiment by means of a series of simultaneously applied broadband RF pulses. INEPT achieves a polarisation transfer from (1)H to (31)P spin states by directly reordering the populations in spin systems with heteronuclear scalar coupling. Thus, only the (31)P NMR signal of metabolites with scalar (1)H-(31)P coupling is amplified, while the other metabolite signals in the spectra are suppressed. Compared to Ernst-angle excitation, a repetition-time-dependent signal enhancement of eta=(29+/-3)% for methylene diphosphonic acid (MDPA) and eta=(56+/-1)% for phosphorylethanolamine (PE) was obtained on model solutions through optimisation of the temporal parameters of the pulse experiment. The results are in good agreement with numerical calculations of the theoretical model for the studied spin systems. With optimised echo times, in-vivo (31)P signal enhancement of the same order was obtained in studies of the human brain.

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Medronic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard