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Journal of environmental quality

Using nonequilibrium thin-disc and batch equilibrium techniques to evaluate herbicide sorption.


PMID 12931895

Abstract

Nonequilibrium disc-flow techniques may better reproduce dynamic soil-pesticide interactions than traditional batch sorption studies. Batch kinetic and equilibrium experiments and dual-label thin-disc flow experiments were conducted with atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and imazaquin [2-(4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid] using a Demopolis silt loam (loamy-skeletal, carbonatic, thermic, shallow Typic Udorthent; 8% clay, 62 g kg(-1) organic matter, 7.6 pH). Batch kinetic studies with both herbicides revealed an almost instantaneous rapid phase and a much slower gradual phase. The rapid phase was complete after 5 min and equilibrium was reached at 24 h. The rapid phase accounted for 74% and 12 to 30% of the total amounts adsorbed for atrazine and imazaquin, respectively. The sorption of both the rapid and 24-h isotherms for each herbicide best fit the Freundlich equation. The rapid and 24-h K(f) values of atrazine were 1.38 and 2.41, respectively, and the N value of both phases was approximately 0.93. For imazaquin, the rapid and 24-h K(f) values were 0.056 and 035, respectively, and the N value for the rapid phase of imazaquin was 0.71, compared with 0.86 for the 24-h isotherm. In the dual-label thin-disc flow experiments, the average partition coefficient for atrazine at the peak soil concentration point was 1.54. This value closely agreed with the observed rapid-phase K(f) value of 1.38. In contrast, the thin-disc flow experiments failed to detect any imazaquin retention. The thin-disc flow method can allow for a greater resolution of rapid sorption kinetics, which is impractical with batch studies. Along with dynamic partitioning data, the thin-disc flow method may provide kinetics data that may better complement environmental models than coefficients generated with batch techniques.

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