Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Structural analysis of human pyruvate kinase L-gene and identification of the promoter activity in erythroid cells.

PMID 1445295


The human pyruvate kinase (PK) L-gene is organized in 12 exons over 9.5 kilobases, and the first and second exons are specifically transcribed to the R- and L-type PK mRNA. The 5'-flanking region upstream the first exon has two CAC boxes and four GATA motifs within 250 bp from the translational initiation codon. Comparison with the rat L-gene revealed four well-conserved elements in the region. The transient transfection demonstrated that the 270-bp upstream region was a powerful promoter in K562 cells, whereas deletion of the distal 150-bp sequences, which included three GATA motifs, resulted in drastic reduction of the activity. When the hypersensitive site 2 of the human beta-globin gene locus was joined to the promoter, the activity of the proximal 120-bp region was enhanced. We concluded that the proximal 120-bp region had a basal promoter activity and that the distal 150-bp region acted as an enhancer in erythroid cells.