EMAIL THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND

Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP

An updated evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of 1,4-dioxane.


PMID 14550759

Abstract

This paper presents a critical review of the information pertaining to the potential carcinogenicity of 1,4-dioxane. The primary target organs for cancer via the oral route are the liver and the nasal cavity, however, the relevance of nasal cavity tumors to human exposures has been questioned. Liver tumors were accompanied by degenerative changes and appear only to occur at high doses where clearance mechanisms are saturated and liver toxicity is significant. Genetic toxicity data suggests that 1,4-dioxane is a very weak genotoxin. An increase in hepatocyte cell proliferation was reported and 1,4-dioxane was shown to act as a tumor promoter in rat liver and mouse skin carcinogenicity assays. Two reports are available from the literature regarding physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approaches to assess the risk of liver cancer for 1,4-dioxane. A comparison of cancer risk estimates from linear and nonlinear models in the presence or absence of PBPK modeling suggests that USEPAs current cancer slope factor significantly overestimates the potential cancer risk from 1,4-dioxane. This critical review of the scientific literature indicates that a formal reevaluation of the carcinogenic potency of 1,4-dioxane is warranted.

Related Materials

Product #

Image

Description

Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

34857
1,4-Dioxane, for HPLC, ≥99.5%
C4H8O2
360481
1,4-Dioxane, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
C4H8O2
676934
1,4-Dioxane, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
C4H8O2
33147
1,4-Dioxane, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.5% (GC)
C4H8O2
D201863
1,4-Dioxane, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
C4H8O2
CRM48367
1,4-Dioxane solution, certified reference material, 2000 μg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL
C4H8O2
612073
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 40% in benzene-d6 (99.6 atom % D), chromium(III) acetylacetonate 5 mg/mL, NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
C4H8O2
611905
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 40% in benzene-d6 (99.6 atom % D), chromium(III) acetylacetonate 5 mg/mL, NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in.
C4H8O2
551368
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 40% in benzene-d6 (99.6 atom % D)
C4H8O2
612111
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 40% in benzene-d6 (99.6 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
C4H8O2
631833
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 5 mM in benzene-d6 (99.6 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
C4H8O2
631868
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 5 mM in chloroform-d (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
C4H8O2
684228
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 40% in benzene-d6 (99.6 atom % D), NMR tube size 10 mm × 8 in.
C4H8O2
704806
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 1 mM in D2O ("100", 99.96 atom % D), NMR tube size 5 mm × 7 in.
C4H8O2
704814
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 10 mM in D2O ("100%", 99.96 atom % D), NMR tube size 5 mm × 7 in.
C4H8O2
704822
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 0.1 mM in D2O ("100%", 99.96 atom % D), NMR tube size 5 mm × 7 in.
C4H8O2
736171
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 40% in benzene-d6 (99.6 atom % D), NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in.
C4H8O2
703354
1,4-Dioxane solution, NMR reference standard, 40% in benzene-d6 (99.6 atom % D), chromium(III) acetylacetonate 5 mg/mL, NMR tube size 6.5 mm × 8 in.
C4H8O2