Toxicology letters

Reversal of cadmium induced oxidative stress by chelating agent, antioxidant or their combination in rat.

PMID 14580892


The influence of an antioxidant agent such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or mannitol on the cadmium chelating ability of monoisoamyl 2,3-dimercaptosuccinate (MiADMS) was investigated in cadmium pre-exposed rats. This ester of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), an accepted drug for lead poisoning, being lipophilic in nature was expected to be an efficient cadmium chelator. The treatment of cadmium intoxicated animals with MiADMS reversed cadmium induced increase in blood catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver MDA and brain SOD and MDA levels but not the decrease in blood, liver brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, consistent with the lowering of tissue cadmium burden. The administration of NAC or mannitol reversed the cadmium induced alterations in blood and liver GSH, GSSG, blood catalase, SOD, MDA, liver SOD, MDA and brain MDA levels without lowering blood and tissue cadmium contents. However, treatments with the combination of MiADMS and NAC or MiADMS and mannitol reversed these alterations as well as reduced blood and tissue cadmium concentrations. The combined treatment with MiADMS and mannitol was better than that with MiADMS and NAC, and was significantly more effective in normalizing blood, liver GSH, GSSG, brain GSSG, and their GSH/GSSG ratios than that by either of them alone. The combined treatments also improved liver and brain endogenous zinc levels, which were decreased due to cadmium toxicity. The results suggest that the administration of an antioxidant during chelation of cadmium may provide beneficial effects by reducing oxidative stress without its cadmium removing ability.