The Journal of pathology

High-throughput tissue microarray analysis of 11q13 gene amplification (CCND1, FGF3, FGF4, EMS1) in urinary bladder cancer.

PMID 14648664


Gene amplification is a common mechanism for oncogene overexpression. High-level amplifications at 11q13 have been repeatedly found in bladder cancer by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and other techniques. Putative candidate oncogenes located in this region are CCND1 (PRAD1, bcl-1), EMS1, FGF3 (Int-2), and FGF4 (hst1, hstf1). To evaluate the involvement of these genes in bladder cancer, a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 2317 samples was screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The frequency of gains and amplifications of all genes increased significantly from stage pTa to pT1-4 and from low to high grade. In addition, amplification was associated with patient survival and progression of pT1 tumours. Among 123 tumours with amplifications, 68.3% showed amplification of all four genes; 19.5% amplification of CCND1, FGF4, and FGF3; and 0.8% co-amplification of FGF4, FGF3, and EMS1. Amplification of CCND1 alone was found in 9% of the tumours, while EMS1 alone was amplified in 1.6% and FGF4 in 0.8%. Overall, the amplification frequency decreased with increasing genomic distance from CCND1, suggesting that, among the genes examined, CCND1 is the major target gene in the 11q13 amplicon in bladder cancer.