Journal of environmental quality

The effect of five forage species on transport and transformation of atrazine and isoxaflutole (balance) in lysimeter leachate.

PMID 14674520


A field lysimeter study with bare ground and five different ground covers was established to evaluate the effect of forage grasses on the fate and transport of two herbicides in leachate. The herbicides were atrazine (ATR; 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) and isoxaflutole [IXF; 5-cyclopropyl-4-(2-methylsulfonyl-4-trifluormethyl-benzoyl)isoxazole], which has the commercial name Balance (Aventis Crop Science, Strasbourg, France). The ground covers included orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). The results suggested that the total IXF (parent + metabolites) showed higher mobility than ATR and its metabolites. Differences in the timing of transport reflected the rapid degradation of IXF to the more soluble, stable, and biologically active diketonitrile (DKN) metabolite in the system. Although grass treatments did not promote the hydrolysis of DKN, they significantly reduced its transport in the leachate through enhanced evapotranspiration. Grass treatments significantly enhanced ATR degradation in the leachates and soils, especially through N dealkylation, but they did not reduce total ATR transported in the leachate. Leachate from the orchardgrass lysimeters contained the highest proportion of ATR metabolites (64.2%). Timothy and smooth bromegrass treatments also displayed a significant increase in ATR metabolites in leachate. Grass-treated lysimeters showed higher microbial biomass carbon than bare ground. For ATR treatments, the proportion of metabolites in the leachate strongly correlated with the elevated soil microbial biomass carbon in forage treatments. In contrast, DKN degradation was poorly correlated with soil microbial biomass carbon, suggesting that DKN degradation is an abiotic process.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

Isoxaflutole, PESTANAL®, analytical standard