The Journal of heredity

Inheritance of resistance to clopyralid and picloram in yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) is controlled by a single nuclear recessive gene.

PMID 14691320


The noxious weed yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) can be controlled effectively at the seedling stage with foliar application of the auxinic herbicides picloram or clopyralid. Although resistance to these herbicides is rare, a yellow starthistle biotype resistant to picloram and cross-resistant to clopyralid was observed in 1989 near Dayton, WA, in a pasture that had been subjected to intensive picloram selective pressure. Our objective was to determine the mode of inheritance for this resistance trait. Transmission of the resistant phenotype was monitored in reciprocal F(1) crosses between susceptible (SCI) and resistant (RDW) plants, their testcross and pseudo-F(2) progeny. Progeny from all crosses, as well as RDW and SCI seedlings of original populations, were sprayed with picloram or clopyralid to distinguish between susceptible and resistant individuals. All F(1) progeny were susceptible to both herbicides, indicating that the resistance trait was of nuclear origin and recessive in nature. Segregation of the resistant phenotype among pseudo-F(2) and testcross progeny of F(1) genotypes demonstrated monofactorial inheritance (P >.25) for resistance to both herbicides. The conclusion that resistance is conferred by a single recessive allele is consistent with the observation that no other picloram-resistant yellow starthistle populations have been identified in the area since picloram selection pressure was abated.

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Clopyralid, PESTANAL®, analytical standard