Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Uptake and metabolic fate of [14C]-2,4-dichlorophenol and [14C]-2,4-dichloroaniline in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and soybean (Glycine max).

PMID 14705901


The uptake and metabolism of [14C]-2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and [14C]-2,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) were investigated in wheat and soybean. Seeds were exposed to a nutrient solution containing 50 microM of one of two radiolabeled compounds, and plant organs were harvested separately after 18 days of growth. In wheat, uptake of [14C]-2,4-DCP was 16.67 +/- 2.65 and 15.50 +/- 2.60% of [14C]-2,4-DCA. In soybean, uptake of [14C]-2,4-DCP was significantly higher than [14C]-2,4-DCA uptake, 38.39 +/- 2.56 and 18.98 +/- 1.64%, respectively. In the case of [14C]-2,4-DCP, the radioactivity absorbed by both species was found mainly associated with roots, whereas [14C]-2,4-DCA and related metabolites were associated with aerial parts, especially in soybean. In wheat, nonextractable residues represented 7.8 and 8.7% of the applied radioactivity in the case of [14C]-2,4-DCP and [14C]-2,4-DCA, respectively. In soybean, nonextractable residues amounted to 11.8 and 5.8% of the total radioactivity for [14C]-2,4-DCP and [14C]-2,4-DCA, respectively. In wheat, nonextractable residues were nearly equivalent to extractable residues for [14C]-2,4-DCP, whereas they were greater for [14C]-2,4-DCA. In soybean, the amount of extractable residues was significantly greater for both chemicals. However, in both species, nonextractable residues were mainly associated with roots. Isolation of soluble residues was next undertaken using excised shoots (wheat) or excised fully expanded leaves including petioles (soybean). Identification of metabolite structures was made by comparison with authentic standards, by enzymatic hydrolyses, and by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analyses. Both plant species shared a common metabolism for [14C]-2,4-DCP and [14C]-2,4-DCA since the malonylated glucoside conjugates were found as the final major metabolites.