Parasitology research

Transmission electron microscope study of the ultrastructural changes induced in the tegument and gut of Fasciola hepatica following in vivo drug treatment with clorsulon.

PMID 14714178


Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both the tegument and gut of Fasciola hepatica were examined in an effort to identify and characterise the ultrastructural changes induced following treatment with the flukicidal drug clorsulon. Male Sprague-Dawley rats infected with F. hepatica were dosed orally at 8-8.5 weeks post-infection with clorsulon at a concentration of 12.5 mg/kg body weight. After 24, 48 and 72 h, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and mature flukes recovered from the bile ducts. After 24 h treatment in vivo, disruption of the tegumental syncytium was concentrated at the apex of the syncytium where a dark band consisting of numerous secretory bodies was present. Some blebbing of the apex had also occurred, "open" bodies were present in this region and the mitochondria were slightly swollen. In the cell bodies, swelling of the mitochondria and their cristae had also occurred and the Golgi complexes appeared to be smaller than normal. The disruption seen after 48 h treatment in vivo was similar but more severe: the frequency of blebbing had increased, as had the number of "open" bodies and the swelling of the mitochondria. Vacuoles had begun to appear in the syncytium-both autophagic and electron-lucent-and swelling of the mucopolysaccharide masses around the basal infolds had occurred. Lipid droplets were observed occasionally. In the cell bodies, autophagic vacuoles had begun to appear and swelling of the mitochondria had increased in severity. After 72 h treatment in vivo, more severe disruption was seen in the tegumental syncytium in which widespread swelling and blebbing of the apex was apparent. The basal infolds had become very badly swollen in a number of specimens and damage to the spines was evident. The mitochondria remained swollen, as did the mucopolysaccharide masses around the basal infolds. Lipid droplets were more frequently observed in the syncytium. In the tegumental cells, swelling of the mitochondria was greater and an increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles was apparent. The gut showed signs of disruption after 24 h treatment in vivo, in that the surface lamellae were disrupted and a build-up of autophagic vacuoles at the apex of the cells had taken place. Swelling of the mitochondria and the cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum (gER) was evident. There was a decrease in the number of secretory bodies. After 48 h treatment in vivo, the number of autophagic vacuoles in the gastrodermal cells had increased, the mitochondria and gER remained swollen and the disruption seen to the lamellae was still evident. In the 72 h-treated specimens, the disruption seen in the gastrodermal cells had increased significantly, with severe vacuolation of the apical cytoplasm. An increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles was evident, the mitochondria and the gER remained swollen and lipid droplets were present in the cells.

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Clorsulon, VETRANAL, analytical standard