Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)

Lipoxygenase-dependent superoxide release in skeletal muscle.

PMID 15107407


Superoxide anion radical (O(2)(*-)) is released from skeletal muscle at rest and is particularly elevated during conditions of heat stress (42 degrees C). Previous studies have shown that in isolated rat diaphragm O(2)(*-) release is not dependent on mitochondrial electron transport, reduced NADP oxidase activity, or the integrity of membrane anion channels. This study hypothesized that O(2)(*-) release, as measured by cytochrome c reduction, is linked to metabolism of arachidonic acid. Phospholipase A(2) inhibition with manoalide significantly decreased O(2)(*-) release. In downstream pathways, neither the blockage of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin nor the inhibition of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase with SKF-525A decreased O(2)(*-) release. However, lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition with general LOX blockers 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid and cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-cyanocinnamate greatly attenuated the signal. Furthermore, the specific 5-LOX inhibitor diethylcarbamazine also significantly decreased O(2)(*-) release. Immunohistochemistry localized 5- and 12-LOX to the cytosol and sarcolemma of muscle cells. Confocal studies, using the O(2)(*-)-sensitive fluorescent indicator hydroethidine, demonstrated that LOX inhibition had no significant influence on intracellular O(2)(*-) formation. When compared with the cytochrome c results, this indicates that intra- and extracellular O(2)(*-) must arise from different sources. These data show for the first time that arachidonic acid metabolism through LOX activity, is a major source of extracellular O(2)(*-) release in skeletal muscle.

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5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic acid, ≥97%